宁界

想到可以直接参与ALEX的CPPD课程,可以又朝我的梦想迈进一大步了。沙游、游戏与艺术治疗原本就很难界定到底那一个比哪个好。现在,可以直接运用创意艺术原理来丰富我的辅导咨询工作实在太棒了。

愿我自己可以时时刻刻哪么又冲劲,保持积极的学习精神,努力的往我的梦想又夸进一大步

加油。加油。

请大家多多指教 :)

Thursday, July 2, 2009

PIAGETIAN STAGES IN CHILDREN 'S SAND PLAY

JONES (1986)
The results of this study established a body of evidence that supported the assumption that the structure of children's creative expression in Sandplay is consistent with Piaget's principles and chronological stages of cognitive development. structural complexcity of the sand worlds increased with age in accordance with Piaget's developmental sequences.

Observing sand worlds of children, who fell within Piaget's developmental stages, Jones found as follows:

Stage I (0-1 years)
  1. No evidence of a world view or a cohesive perspective, parts, and themes are scattered and fragmentary.
  2. Worlds extend beyond the boundaries of the tray, few figures (25 percent or less are within the tray)
  3. Figures are placed side-by-side, while orientation is unintentional
  4. Llittle sense of focus or physical co-ordination, resulting in figures that are heaped and scattered across the room as well as the tray.
  5. Relationship between figues is "bizzare" and highly subjective"
  6. Sand is dropped and thrown inside and outside the tray - figures are plunged in and out of it.
  7. No boundaries are created within the tray by grouping of figures
Stage II (2-4 years)
  1. There is an emerging sense of perspective with the sand world in which momentary situations and partial connections are depicited. However, there is still a chaotic missing figures.
  2. Most of the figres are placed within the boundaries of the tray, but often figures are also placed outside. Most of the tray is generally used in this stage, but it is not uncommon to have only part of the tray used as well
  3. Use of orientation of figures maybe either intentional or unintentional, depending upon involvement in simple dramaitc play
  4. sand is used primarily for burying and unburying figures, which may result in a vague sense of boundarythrough this simple dramatic play
  5. Although figures are not used explicitly to create boundaries, boundaries may appear without apparent intention.
Stage III (5-7 years)
  1. There is sense of a partial constuctions that is neither entiely global nor diffuse and that reflects the beginnings of various relationships
  2. The sand world is generally created within the boundaries of the tray, occupying between 91 percent to 100 percent of the tray
  3. Two figures are deliberately oriented as well as interpersonally and functioanally related.
  4. when there are more than two figures, dramatic grouping is a simple one (such as two witches around a cauldron)
  5. Dramatic action between figures is clear through placement, action and relationship between figures
  6. sand is used to create permanent structures and clear, though diffuse boundaries, even though somewhat diffuse
  7. Boundaries created by figures are simple ones (such as baby animals grouped together with mothers nearby)
Stage IV (8-12 years)
  1. There is a coherent world view, often with a single concrete theme, which brings together simple part. objects are grouped in meaningful relationships that include a sense of symmetry (such as a holiday theme, without the complexity and richness that older children and adults might include)
  2. The figures are entirely within tray and 91 to 100 percent of the tray is used
  3. The orientation of the figures is intentional and scale and placement become important
  4. some dramatic play still remains, usually centring around the c0-operation between figures
  5. There is increased complexity of classification, in which, for example, human neighbourhoods are clearly potrayed
  6. There is some simple and construction, although sand is generally left untouched
  7. Either boundaries are defined by figures that are somewhat clear or there are no boundary figures present.
Stages V (13 - 18 years)
  1. symbolic as well as realistic worlds are formed, characterised by : (a) a single themes, encompassing comples parts that may be completely integrated; (b) an abstract theme, uniting seemingly unrelated figures; or (c) a single clear theme with parts exhibiting interdependence and integration
  2. The figures are entirely within the tray and 91 to 100 percent of the tray is used
  3. Intentional orientation of figures is clear - figures are altered (placed in seated or prone positions to increase the drama, for examples) and bridges over water are used
  4. No dramatic play is used; groups of figures are complexly organised in a creative way to show dramatic movement
  5. Figures displaying the human community are clearly established or an integrated, lone figures may be used
  6. sand is extensively used to create land and water forms as well as boundaries
  7. Boundaries are also created by well co-ordinated groupings of miniature, which may relate to a compplex world.
http://books.google.com.my/books?id=Opm_JcRWSxwC&pg=PA91&lpg=PA91&dq=Jones+1986+piagetian+stages+in+children%27s+sand+play&source=bl&ots=Jpq_mjoSSB&sig=CY7DuoEhYlrLgvW_zFsYGc_CbiY&hl=en&ei=Hr9QSp-ON4P-tQOxzfCqDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1

4 comments:

Gary said...

I enjoyed this.
Could you provide the complete citation for Jones?

Jo said...

Great. I learnt so much from reading what you put up in your blog. Thanks. At least I don't have to trawl through google to look for the info, I also learnt quite a lot about today at your workplace too... he he he...

x10 said...

o... i am so happy that u n Miss energetic was visit at my workplace. and, i also in learning stage, u see...so, let's learn together...

x10 said...

Gary? thank you for reading, i am so sorry, i don't have the full/complete citation for JONES, BUT, you can read about this book " Sandplay By Rie Rogers Mitchell, Harriet S. Friedman" at page 91 on Piagetian stages in children's sand play
:)